Opportunities in underground environment

The underground environment in the Callio Lab provide excellent opportunities for various areas from fundamental research and R&D activities to commercial and industrial activities.


Underground environments provides opportunities for wide range of disciplines in both fundamental research and applied sciences, for example in:

  • Elementary Particle Physics
  • Nuclear Physics,
  • Astrophysics/Cosmology,
  • Geosciences
  • Microbiology
  • Biology
  • Material Sciences
  • Etc.


Low background environments are needed for the experiments studying rare phenomena, like the interactions of neutrinos or of the dark matter. Natural background sources, such as gamma, alpha, beta and neutron radiation from building and detector materials, can be suppressed with proper shielding materials. However, for the high energy muons the only way to reduce the background is to locate the experiments deep underground thus increasing the depth of matter.

For extremely low rate interactions the deep underground laboratories (DUL) provide surroundings where the flux of easily penetrating high energy muons is close to zero. The rock-overburden, in astroparticle physics presented in metres of water equivalent (m.w.e.), acts as a barrier for these high energy particles.

Underground physics and astrophysics search answers to fundamental questions like:

  • What happens inside the Sun?
  • How do the supernovae explode?
  • What is the dark matter of the Universe and what is the Universe made of, and how did it evolve?
  • Why does matter dominate over antimatter?
  • Are protons stable or unstable?


The stable, low background and pristine conditions in the underground laboratory offers good environment for versatile biological studies. Eg. for studying the interaction of geology and biology in deforming the Earth beneath the ground, for finding out the evolution of microbial life in the conditions with no background etc.

As an example, it has been studied by using the methods from geology, geophysics, hydrology, geochemistry and microbiology how different forms of life have interact with the geology of the planet. The information have been gathered by using the drill hole and as the side product of the mine activities.

However, by using the stable laboratory spaces, one can bring several useful dimensions to the studies. For example, it is possible easily to change place of research (depth, location), and most of all, the laboratory enables performing studies for long period of time – compared to the single drill hole.


Underground environment provides excellent opportunities also for geoscientific research.

Rock engineering

  • An underground environment can provide a low-cost and long-term access for underground research and an opportunity to perform basic and applied research.
  • The construction of an underground laboratory is a great opportunity for a long-term research of the bed rock in terms of the rock engineering.

For more information, please visit: calliolab.com